Mukhdoom Shah Bilawal son of Jam Hassan Samma (Baghban)

Sunday 30 October 2016 8 months ago 149   Hyderabad   Print

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Report  web desk : The life account of Mukhdoom Bilawal in written form is not to be found, but information gathered from oral traditions is that he was Samma by caste belonging to the royal family of Thatta that is why he was entitled “Samma Sardar“. We don’t have his confirm date of birth, but it is generally accepted that he was born in the midst of ninth century AH, in those days Thatta, Sehwan, Patt, and Talti were educational hubs. He got his early education from Thatta and then went to Talti for further education, Mukhdoom Umar was his teacher, and from here he also got married and settled in the village of Baghban, his tomb is also situated here. From accounts it is known that he was scholar of Quranic interpretation and Hadith that is why students from far areas came to be educated from him. He was one of the important mystics of his time, the reference of this could be found from ‘Daleel-e-Zakreen‘ a book written by Mian Ghulam Rasool Siddiqui, grandson of Mukhdoom Nooh. He writes that there were three import mystic thoughts in Sindh (a) Qalandar Lal Shahbaz, (b) Mukhdoom Bilawal and (c) Mukhdoom Nooh. From these men mysticism spread in different parts of Sindh. His famous disciples are as following: (1) Mukhdoom Sahar Lanjhar (tomb near Unarpur) Syed Ruknuddin of Matiari was his student, who had influence over Syed family of Matiari. (2) Syed Hyder Shah of Sann (tomb at Sann); his followers spread Mukhdoom Sahib’s teachings from village Chachar to Khaman and to the mountainous areas. (3) Mukhdoom Ruknuddin alias Mukhdoom Mithoo (tomb at Makli; Thatta): because of him Bilawali teachings reached the capital. (4) Mukhdoom Hassan Ali Bilawali (tomb at Bhanot): his influence reached up to K.T. Bandar. (5) Mukhdoom Saad alias Mukhdoom Saandh (tomb near Sakrand): he was grandfather of Mian Sahib of Khanyaran. (6) Mukhdoom Hingoro (tomb Geechro, Moro): because of him Bilawali teachings spread in this region. It is unfortunate that manuscripts of Mukhdoom Bilawal are lost, that is why his life account is based upon oral traditions and certain books. He was of those mystics, who were of view that Islamic law should be followed on guidelines of a rightly guided teacher, for that reason he focused on moral values and purification of soul. The main rules and regulations of his teachings were as under: (i) The person in this way should avoid gifts and bounties from disciples and should involve in some kind of profession to earn livelihood. (ii) It is important that religion should be separated from politics. (iii) His group on basis of nationalism supported love of Sindh. The explanation of above mentioned regulations, is as under: (1) Disciples should earn livelihood through a profession: In those days it was a common practice for religious schools and scholars to rely upon financial aid of government or the citizens. This mystic after lot of pondering concluded that both things were harmful, government aid compelled them to distort law according to will of rulers and gifts from followers turned them to be greedy. So this institution was a liability for both. For this reason Mukhdoom Sahib took profession of cloth-making to earn bread and butter, and instructed his followers to engage themselves in some kind of profession, even if they were to come to him for education, they should bring their food with them. It was important for them to lead a simple life. Following rules were set for that: neither he took any gift from his followers nor were his disciples allowed to do so. bilawal He used to live in hut made of mud, and instructed his disciples to do so, rather living in bricked houses, which in those days were called mansions. It was obligatory for followers of Bilawali school of thought to have simple khaddhi clothing and eat simple food, they were not allowed to wear silk or eat rich food. Designed and well-crafted swings or cots were not to be used in houses. Even women were not allowed to wear silk and put on heavy jewelry. Building a shrine over grave was not allowed. These things were obligatory because greed of getting gifts and bounties from disciples made the Pir lazy, coward and corrupt, and brought loss for everyone. (2) Separation of religion from politics: He had complete grip over Muslim history, and knew fully that after combining religion with politics many religious scholars distorted Islamic laws for the benefit of rulers. Holy Prophet PBUH considered difference of opinion to be a blessing and had permitted it. But he (Mukhdoom Bilawal) came to know from history that rulers and scholars oppressed difference of opinion to gain their vested interests, in the name of religion. They even killed many scholars and mystics. The examples of Shams Tabreez, Mansoor Hilaj and other were before him, apart from that there were Muslim rulers before him, who to gain their own political interests were fighting with each other. Every fight or conflict was supported by some religious scholars calling it Jihad, resulting killings of hundreds and thousands of Muslims. He even knew that there were many sects in Islam each representing a Sharia, and reconciliation was impossible between them. Many rulers had compromised Islamic traditions and were ruling under native trends, traditions and culture of the land. Every country and nation had different condition, so people were being exploited in name religion. As Hindu population was in large number at Sindh, who had friendly relationship with native Muslims, together they used to fight against foreign invaders (who were mostly Muslims), if the religion was combined with politics, extremist mullahs would get an opportunity to exploit it against people belonging to different sects and faiths, which was harmful for the strength of country and nation, and there would have been limited chances of a united front of Sindhis against foreign invaders. Sindh always feared from an attack from Delhi and Afghanistan. If the religion and politics were to be combined, then the concept of nation was to be formed on basis of religion, so there was fair chance that a foreign agent disguised as Muslim could infiltrate and damage cause of Sindh. This theory of Muslims being separate nation was to be imposed according to international laws, and there was fair chance that it might come in conflict with interest of the country. Like today many countries ban Communist Party considering it to be against interests of their country because of its internationalism. (3) He was supporter of Nationalism: In guidance of true Islamic education, and keeping in view the interests of Sindh, he considered the concept of Muslims as separate nation, as falsehood and against Islam. He had seen all around that some rulers being Muslims were Mughals, Turks, Iranians and some Arabs, to gain their vested interests, they had wars, conquered and looted countries, covering these evil deeds under “Jihad” in name of Islam. The mullahs praised warriors and murderers like Mehmood Ghaznavi, Timor Ling Alla uddin to be “Ghazi” and “men of Quran” calling their murders to be Jihad. The evil deeds of Umayyad, banu Abbas and other Muslim rulers were before him, being a man of knowledge he was not ready to associate such deeds with Islam. He was Sindhi by birth, and pious and well cultured men of his clan were ruling Sindh, its neighboring Hindu kings and native Hindu princes were allies for greater interest of the country, so he concluded that people of Sindh on basis of motherland, language and common interests are a different nation. The concept of Muslims being a nation was mere deception of the foreign invaders to establish their writ in Sindh. So, he himself, all his disciples and his friend Nawab Darya Khan were against this concept of Muslims being a separate nation on basis of religion, he had witnessed many historic facts in this regard. So when Syed Muhammad Miran Shah of Junpur came to Sindh and for the supremacy of Islam claimed to be Mehdi, he considering it to be against interests of Sindh opposed him, and asked his disciple Syed Hyder Shah of Sann to destroy Syed Muhammad Miran Shah’s boats, this act stopped this theory to take roots in Sindh and forced the Syed to return back to Afghanistan. He knew that never in history Muslims were united and neither all Muslims were on right path, nor all non-Muslims were pagans. Dividing people on basis of religion was wrong and unnatural. Many non-Muslims believed in God, were upright men and preferred peace, while many Muslims were tyrant, bandits and racists. So on the basis that Sindhis being a separate nation, he supported Samma rulers against Aurghuns. His followers in alliance fought against Aurghuns. Due to incompetence of Jam Feroz and strong hold of foreigners in court, Nawab Darya Khan with broken heart resigned from the ministry, while conquering the land, the Aurghuns reached Thatta, Nawab Darya Khan fought for Sindh till death, and after that Nawab’s sons Mottan Khan and Mehmood Khan, Rano Ramal, and Jodha Singh, Sodha clan, Sehto clan and Mukhdoom Sahib’s followers had a second battle at Talti, in which all were killed. Mukhdoom Sahib knew he was the next target, conditions were unfavorable in Sindh and there was no chance of victory, so he decided to give his life alone, amongst his disciples, Shah Hyder of Sann was man of high temper, so he instructed him to go to Kutch, following instructions of his guide he went there. Meanwhile, Jam Feroz asked Shah Beg for help, who sent a force under command of his son Mirza Shah Hassan to march on Gujrat. A battle took place at Village Jeevan (now completely ruined) near Tando Ghulam Ali. Mirza Shah Hassan got victory in this battle. At first Hibat Ali Khan son of Jam Salauddin and then Jam Salauddin were killed. Mirza Shah Beg stayed in Sindh for one year approximately. At last on 12th of Shuban 928 AH or 1521 AD, he died at Aghamkot, while preparing to march to Gujrat. After him Mirza Shah Hassan sat on the throne at a village of Nasrpur. The landlords and Syeds of this area came to morn on his father’s death and congratulated him for being new ruler. When Mirza Shah Hassan moved forward to Thatta to remove Jam Feroz, getting this news Jam Feroz went to Mirza Kutch for help. Upon this Shah Hassan made a move and at adjoining villages of Rahmki Bazaar came face to face with Jam Feroz’s army. Though Samma troops fought with courage, but in the end Aurghuns overcame them, Jam Feroz fled to Gujrat and now Sindh was under total control of Aurghuns. Now, Mirza Shah Hassan started to crush his remaining opponents. He established a barrack for his troops at Sann for some time to kill his opponents. Since Shah Hyder had already left the country, he didn’t face any resistance here. After that he moved to Talti to avenge Mukhdoom Bilawal. He didn’t waste any time get a verdict from religious priests that Mukhdoom Sahib was an unbeliever. So he sent some Quranic words printed on a shoe as a gift Mukhdoom Sahib, who put it over his head, other tactics were also used. On 2nd Rajab 930 AH or 6th May 1523 AD, he assassinated Mukhdoom Sahib by grinding him in a seed grinder. Mukhdoom Sahib was fourth in the list of heroes and first in the list of scholars, who gave his life for sovereignty of Sindh. (Note: This article is translated from Mr. G M Syed’s booklet “Sindh Ja Surma” and is translated by Kaleem Butt for ‘OIN’). 02