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Miseries of Pakistan, We have to learn from the book Why nations fail?

Salma Soomro
Hyderabad: 30 November 2021: This book Why nations fail reveals the key shortfall of many nations and research on their history, etc. This book by Daren Acemoglu and James Robinson reveals that Europe and northern countries are in progress and the south countries' warmth is not going on the road of progress.
Does Geography create any difference: French Philosopher Montesquieu said that In the 18 teen century people would believe that northern countries have a cold climate and people are more active in that countries. Whereas extreme Hot climate makes its residents slow and sluggish to work for their country that is why they are poor and mostly Contrary to that belief Scholars said while refusing that Botswana, Malaysia, and Singapore were quoted that all of them have warm weather but are succeeding.
German's example : West Germany and East Germany both had the same geographic area here west Germany was touching the peaks of success and east Germany was extremely slow in progress. As a result of frustration, the people broke the wall between east and west Germany and showed their willingness to live together.
Does Culture influence:
Africa: Latin America can not be rich because they waste their energy and uselessly exploit their resources. They are still indulging in an amulet and black magic and another sort of magics. Latin American people believe in delaying and excusing when it was highly needed to work for their success.
Max Weber German sociologist: Said when Europe left the church and catholic ideas and choose protestant thoughts they succeeded to prove that yes culture have an impact on the nations. Whereas it was Refused by Why Nation fail, yes but not completely culture is not 100 deciding factor. To some extent, culture is relevant to one's success but not complete. Congo was not even aware of the use of wheels but after coming in contact with Portugal they adopted the European way of life and bought the weapon and used it. education, construction, and others were imported from Europe.They adopted the positivity for success and did not make excuses.
South Korea and North Korea: Both have same weather and geography and culture but they had stark differences now , one part is prosperous, and developed the second is not successful enough. they both have the same culture same language, etc.
Do countries remain poor because their ruling class is fool or incompetent?
This book rejects this idea altogether, and site the case; of Congo and said after the British give independence the dictatorship arrived, leaders are not fool or incompetent but they are in the compulsion to do this stupidity to survive. they built factories and strengthen their constituency for the upcoming election. Whereas they had good economists and they knew that it is going to fail. Factories were there but it was hard to send raw material and collect the furnished goods from that area. despite they did it.
Chinese Example: China progressed after Mao xi dong death and Tiananmen square protest day especially after the death of the Deng Xiaoping incident not because Chinese communist parties wanted to or came to know that communism is not going to benefit the most, but the leader Deng Xiaoping defeated their powerful allies and wanted to progress china on the new footing, and the change is evident today because they grabbed power and solve their political and systematic issues.
What need to be done?
The success of a country depends on good governance peace, and ease of doing business opportunities. That nation how successfully in solving their issues and giving security to business, justice and implementing the law. if any businessman is paying heavy taxes and afraid that his personal property will be taken away at any time: he will fly, to another state. Ultimately the state will suffer.
In order To progress: Research said countries provide free services, good business, and peace, and other basic needs then no one can stop them, important structure, market-friendly laws, up to date institutions working for the betterment of the people instead of muting them and their voice.
How to become a successful nation:
As per this book Political power matters a lot, when the ruling class is truly genuine and wants to work for their nation they formulate good institutions for the economy and goods of the people they get successful contrary they go deep in the poverty.
How: In otherwise situation, insincere government and government for their benefit form government in a way that benefits only 2 percent on the cost of 98 percent population and the rest remain poor and underdeveloped. Such institutions and steps are termed as harmful for the nation. Institution failed to deliver then there is no success chance. The government which filed to do, usually punish people, mute, control freedom of expression and media is toxic.
The question here arises is why the elite of the poor and underdeveloped country is rich and why there is a stark difference in the code of conduct of the northern states and the southern state? Book why nations fail to mention an interesting reason, research-based fact that the elite and political class will do the same thing which benefits them in long term. European and American political elite work for the betterment of the country because they know working for the success of their country will give them a chance in the upcoming election, masses will evaluate them on their work rather than on mere rhetoric. Contrary to the fact that here countries like Pakistan decision-makers are aware of the fact that they are not working for the betterment of the country.
The industrial revolution in the UK was successful because the ruling parties and decision-makers did not feel insecure, whereas in other states where landlords own lands or are dependent on the monarchy and gifts from monarchs prey on the poor to maintain the status quo opposed industrialisation.
Australia, Hungry, and Russia stopped this process of industrialisation because they feel threatened because of upper mention reasons. they were afraid of the urban population and traders and industrialisation and changing ideas of the governance. Argentina, Egypt, Uzbekistan, and North Korea are making sort of institutions that drag their prosperity ahead of them although they are away from each other and have different cultures and languages and system of governance is also entirely different but their corrupt practices can be seen from everywhere. they have poverty, inflation and hunger and injustice, and crime because their elite and ruling class do not seem developing and positive change as beneficial for them.

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