The making of Pakistan


Hyderabad: 23 January 2022: The years since the partition of the Indian subcontinent in 1947 and the creation there of two independent states, India and Pakistan, a vast amount of scholarly attention has been devoted to the area, its peoples, its problems, and its development. The greater part of this attention, however, has focused upon India and continues to do so. It is perhaps natural that such should be the case: India is much the larger of the two states, has the greater population and the most resources, and to date has wielded the larger influence in world affairs. In the balance of world opinion it has weighed more heavily than Pakistan. Also of significance in determining the direction of scholarly attention during the early days after partition was that India, though newly independent, was a going concern with an organized and functioning government, while Pakistan was an unknown quantity striving to create a government and essential services for itself. India had an established identity in its own mind and in that of the outside world, but Pakistan had still to make its identity. There was much to be studied that was of interest, but documentary and other facilities for the scholar did not exist in those days when Pakistan was struggling for its very survival against a formidable array of opponents and difficulties. Nor was there time and energy to spare, on the part of the able but pitifully small group of leaders and civil servants charged with forming Pakistan's destiny, for reporting, analysing, and reflecting upon the state and accomplishments of the infant country. It was far more important - desperately so-to participate in the building of Pakistan than to write about it. Those, especially those abroad, who were interested in the affairs of the new Muslim state in the subcontinent found little to feed their interest. The few books available such as Richard Symonds' The Making of Pakistan (London, 1949) dealt in largest part with the political struggle leading up to the partition and told almost nothing of the subsequent history and working of the new state. A milestone was reached ten years after the partition with publication of the late Keith Callard's Pakistan, A Political Study (London, 1957) which was carefully researched, authoritative, and full of insights on the political system of Pakistan. It continues to be useful for the information it offers about the government of Pakistan in the earliest years and for its understanding of the problems that faced representative government in the country prior to the revolution of October 1958. This book was soon followed by others of a high standard such as Khalid ben Sayeed's Pakistan, The Formative Phase (Karachi, 1960), Wayne Ayres Wilcox' Pakistan, The Consolidation of a Nation (New York, 1963), Ian Stephen's Pakistan (London, 1963), and others. Now the state of the literature dealing with Pakistan has vastly improved. Not only is there an abundance of books on many different aspects of Pakistan's history, culture, economy, and political situation,
The Making of Pakistan
By Richard Symonds

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